Archive for March 2010

Reality bites…Democracy Wins

March 20, 2010

Good news! Despite unprecedented political rankling, America still stands…perhaps evermore indebted but an intact society.

A majority must be on board…or the very fabric of society is at risk. Fringe elements or the disenfranchised represent warning shots that something is askew.

Many issues that divide our nation are reflected in party politics. Some issues become so divisive that the ability to govern at the national level is limited. The Vietnam War was so divisive that this nation is yet to recover. Iraq and Afghanistan were bubbling to epic proportions. Yet, resistance to the increasing involvement in Afghanistan and Pakistan has subsided.

Under the Bush administration, Democrats were loathe to support additional funding or commitment of troops for Iraq and Afghanistan. But when in power, circumstances change for the parties. Has the reality of governing overcome the idealism of campaigning?

Decreased resistance to the war in Afghanistan is a direct result of a change in party leadership in Washington. Isn’t it interesting to see that the once divisive Bush administration anti-terror policies that included warrantless wiretaps, rendition and detention without trial and military tribunals are now a part of the Obama administration lexicon.

I often marvel at the change in power and the subsequent change in policies. While the democratic process is often messy and it alienates a large audience, it does bring forward a national debate that illuminates those toughest of issues. This process is critical to the survival of the very fabric of our society.

When I left office at the Defense Department, we had accomplished a thorough review of Afghanistan and Pakistan with some very comprehensive recommendations, if I say so myself. The results of the review were not implemented but were prepared for the new administration as a point of departure. In hindsight, this was a very wise decision by the previous administration.

Because this nation was embroiled in a heated debate of the efficacy of spending national blood and treasure in far-off lands, it was important for the new administration to take its place in the leadership role. And now with the weight of the White House committed to the war in Afghanistan, America is committed. That is great news for our troops and a huge step from an isolationist approach.

America derives its greatness from the willingness to display it’s messy and sometimes embarrassing kitchen table discussions. National consensus is gained through debate and transparency. America is well served by the transition of power. People are challenged daily and reminded that freedom is fragile and the only way a democracy survives is by the participation of its citizens.

For all its inefficiencies, the democratic process accomplishes its objective. But citizens must move from being spectators to active participants. By all accounts, that’s the way the founding fathers envisioned the process. When properly exercised, vision and acceptance will lead to cohesion in the society.

Yes, reality bites but America is well served by its democratic system. The transition from ideology to governance requires debate understanding and resolve. But in the end, the people win when the fabric of our society is secure. So, enjoy the messiness, celebrate the wisdom of our founding fathers, embrace the change of power and be proud of democracy.

C4 Leadership – It’s Explosive

March 12, 2010

C4 LEADERSHIP – IT’S EXPLOSIVE

While the storm clouds gather far across the sea,
Let us swear allegiance to a land that’s free,
Let us all be grateful for a land so fair,
As we raise our voices in solemn prayer.

Spoken intro to “God Bless America”
Irving Berlin, 1918

Leadership is explosive. When someone oozes leadership, things happen…in fact, they explode. People want to own some of that. So, what makes it so inviting? There are so many elements to leadership that entice. Character, commitment, competence and courage are the C4 of my leadership parlance.

Late one night, I decided it was time to revisit leadership. I marveled at what is important and what stands the test of time. As I took the stroll down memory lane, the glue that held my thoughts together coalesced around these four principles. There is nothing magical about C4—it simply is a useful way to blend concepts learned over the years.

The principles that guide us as individuals and as a nation deserve review and renewal. As America faces what is arguably its most trying time in its history, Liberty and Freedom, in fact, America needs and demands leaders. Leaders committed to what’s best for this nation; leaders who understand what’s at stake…and leaders willing to keep America free. But these leaders must be principled, thoughtfully schooled and dedicated to keeping America great.

So, it is instructive and helpful to observe, talk about and to write on leadership. I encourage you to write about your experiences and observations. It will help you prepare as storm clouds gather. As one of our great Presidents, Ronald Reagan said: “we will always remember, we will always be proud, we will always be prepared, so we will always be free.” You are the leader that will keep us free.

Character

Character is like a tree and reputation like its shadow. The shadow is what we think of it; the tree is the real thing. – Abraham Lincoln

One of the most talked about measures of leadership is character. Character is the aggregate of traits that make up an individual’s moral qualities, ethics and principles. So, how is character developed? Is it nature or is it nurture? Internal wiring may lead our initial reaction but nurture encourages the interaction with our environment and peers and is a major part in our development.

Character develops over time and does not change quickly. A person’s observable behavior is an indication of their character. A person with strong character shows drive, energy, determination, self-discipline, willpower, and nerve. He sees what he wants and goes after it. He attracts followers. On the other hand, a person with weak character shows none of these traits.

Misinformed and poorly developed character leads to wrong decisions and susceptibility to wrongheaded nurture. This recent story from a German newspaper relates the negative effects of nurture when allowed to proceed down the wrong path. “Two German converts to Islam and two Turks were found guilty Thursday of plotting a thwarted attack that a judge said could have killed large numbers of U.S. soldiers and civilians in “a terrible bloodbath.” “Increasingly, violent Islam has a devastating pull over young people in our society,” Judge Ottmar Breidling said in his ruling, calling international terrorism “the scourge of our time.” “This case has shown with frightening clarity what acts young people who are filled with hatred, blinded and seduced by wrong-headed ideas of jihad are prepared and able to carry out.”

So, character does matter and peers and the environment play a big part. Developing the pillars of trust, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring and citizenship are key to enabling character. Having the right role models, setting the right vision and developing positive self-esteem are keys to success. Healthy self-esteem comes in large part from our upbringing, how we are loved and cared for. No matter how we have grown up in this world self-esteem plays a large part in how we live our daily lives. We have the ability to transform any situation by focusing on what we want.

People exhibit strong character in many ways. During a unit visit, I spoke with an employee who had strong character, was very respected and had high self esteem. Helga was an aircraft-sanitation worker who was extremely proud of the work she accomplished. She explained her duties with pride during our discussion. Her tasks included cleaning the lavatories from the aircraft after they were completely removed. She detailed the lavatories with necessary disinfectant using a toothbrush and good old elbow grease–clearly an unpleasant task that she had to repeat multiple times if the aircraft’s lavatory were to be completely cleaned. While I was hesitant to shake her hand on the site, I certainly enjoyed our conversation and I was very appreciative of what she did for our organization. What was so amazing though was that Helga was even more appreciative. She enjoyed what she did and it was important to her to take that equipment from dirty to sparkling. I gained complete respect for her abilities, dedication and character. What to some of us would seem like mundane and undesirable work, she embraced with the knowledge that the lavatory was a part of the required equipment for mission success and she was not having any part of failure. Helga was a true leader and she set a standard of excellence that challenged the most dedicated.

Leaders of character build excellence. The essence is to do the right thing when no one is looking. Excellence in all you do is essentially “being all you can be” within the bounds of doing what is right for your organization. To reach excellence you must first be a leader of good character. You must do everything you are supposed to do. Leaders drive vision, instill guidance and exhibit good management of the resources entrusted to their care. Excellence starts with leaders of good and strong character who engage in the entire process of leadership. And the first process is being a person of honorable character.

Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing. – Warren Bennis, Ph.D. On Becoming a Leader

Commitment

“The moment one definitely commits oneself, then providence moves too. All sorts of things occur to help one that would never otherwise occurred. A whole stream of events issues from the decision, raising in one’s favor all manner of unforeseen incidents and meetings and material assistance which no man could have dreamed would have come his way. Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. Begin it now.” – Goethe

Commitment is a pledge to do something, a dedication to a course of action or engagement. As leaders we often underestimate the power of commitment. There is something powerful about being committed to a vision or to a meaningful purpose. You become more attuned to a new set of events occurring around you much like when you purchase something new; you then tend to increasingly notice that item.

The moment you commit, providence moves too. A whole stream of events including unforeseen incidents and meetings and material assistance, become available. So making a decision to act and taking bold steps to bring that vision into reality is key.

Commitment, like any other leadership tenet, has its cautions. Some may assume that commitment means long hours, while to others it may mean productivity. Getting ahead of the process to define expectations will help success rates soar. Remember, we all must be convinced that the course of action is the correct one and to just assume that everyone is “bought in” may leave you short of teammates. So, walking through the process with your team is important. Address doubts and fears and give people time to think about the commitment.

A leader must commit to the people who bring life to the organizational goals. Establishing an atmosphere of trust and inclusion encourages the commitment process. When trust prevails, team members are more willing to go through a difficult process, supported through ups, downs, risk and potential loss. With leadership’s commitment to a clear vision, and a genuine plan to share risks and rewards, the atmosphere for trust is in place. General Omar Bradley said, “A leader should possess human understanding and consideration for others. Men are not robots and should not be treated as such. I do not by any means suggest coddling. But men are intelligent, complicated beings who will respond favorably to human understanding and consideration. By these means, their leader will get maximum effort from each of them. He will also get loyalty.”

In addition, leaders must become deeply committed to the organization and the vision must be that of their organization and their boss. Absent that, people will doubt. If they can achieve this type of commitment, enhanced mission accomplishment and success are just around the corner.

In order to succeed, leaders must always keep in mind what they want to accomplish and they must persist. As Calvin Coolidge said, “nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent.” Leaders must articulate the mission to their people. They must understand the vision, commit to the mission, address the fears and concerns, establish trust and persist in their efforts to achieve success.

“You can be anything you want to be, if only you believe with sufficient conviction and act in accordance with your faith; for whatever the mind can conceive and believe, the mind can achieve.”
— Napoleon Hill

Competence

“Did you ever see an unhappy horse? Did you ever see a
bird that has the blues? One reason why birds and horses are
not unhappy is because they are not trying to impress other
birds and horses.” –Dale Carnegie

Competence is the result of hard work and study. Performance is a must and there is no substitute. Performance for the horse is measured in number of riders or miles traveled or some other metric but focused on an objective. And success is not determined by someone else but by the horses strength and speed. Much the same, a leader is measured by his ability to get the job done. To get the job done and excel in any walk of life, the leader must be competent in good times and bad. The real measure of competence appears in tough times. It goes beyond just not screwing up. Real competence is measured when there are hard decisions. Real competence shines even in the darkest times.

People want to follow someone who is competent. That person will have all the tools for the occasion and will know which one is appropriate. The competent leader will do what is best for everyone involved and will ignore the path of least resistance. He will use the appropriate mix of knowledge, skill and attitude to be effective in the organization.

Competent leaders assess the full spectrum of events and are not paralyzed by the risk. They can create the right outcome at just the right time. Intuition, informed by experience and study, leads them to do the right thing regardless of the surrounding confusion. And when mistakes are made, they have the self-confidence to admit the mistake with transparency and to grow from the lesson along with their team.

Seldom do competent leaders splash in the headlines because they aren’t looking for the glory; they are satisfied with a job well done. They are confident in their achievements and their history of success speaks for itself. When people in the organization respond to some action taken by a leader with a thought like “I’m glad he’s in charge” or “no wonder he’s in charge” then the complement recognizes competency.

Life long study is a lifestyle choice that improves competency and leads to wisdom and self-awareness. To develop good leadership characteristics, you need to commit to continual learning–both formally and informally. It is easy to take a class or two each year while turning the pages of that well creased book on the nightstand. I learned early on that learning from history would prevent wasted time trying to reinvent the wheel. Learning how others overcome adversity build’s competence and confidence in one’s own ability.

As Yogi Berra said: “If you don’t know where you’re going…you’ll end up somewhere else.” A competent leader will map a winning direction and will actively communicate his vision. His ability to influence the organization in that direction is key to success. Many times when a leader has no time to think and plan for the future, it is because most of the time is spent in the present. Their organization and systems probably rely too much on the leader for input at every stage.

Some leaders have a clear vision, but won’t share it. Concern over losing credibility if they are not able to achieve the objective overrides their sense of trust. People need to know that a leader has a strong vision for the future and a strong plan for going forward. Absent that, organizations flounder. Leaders can communicate their goals and vision for the future without making promises that they may not be able to keep.

“The reason God gave you two ears and one mouth is so that you can listen twice as much as you talk.” We’ve all heard this adage but have we applied it? Listening and responding affirmatively inculcates a sense of a “Yes Leader.” People know that their ideas will be considered. They know that you will take on the additional commitment and responsibilities to research and follow-up with their ideas. Even if the follow-up answer is you can’t, just the act of being inclusive adds to your respectability and competence quotient. And who knows, you may be able to accomplish a majority of those ideas with a little hard work and some personal commitment. So, prepare yourself to be a competent leader through hard work and study.

“Success is the place in the road where preparation and opportunity meet. But too few people recognize it, because too often it comes disguised as hard work.” – Anonymous

Courage

“Courage is the first human virtue because it makes all of the other virtues possible.” — Aristotle

John F. Kennedy said: “Courage – not complacency – is our need today. Leadership not salesmanship.” It remains true today. One must summon the courage, whether in business or personal life, to march toward the sound of the gunfire. When your courage stops, your leadership stops.

It takes courage to face our fears and doubts, and then to act. Being courageous is having the perseverance to accomplish a goal, regardless of the seemingly insurmountable odds. Doing what is standard, common and habitual is natural. We can walk the path of least resistance without thinking. But to be true to our character, to step out with integrity, to instill trust and competence requires the courage to embrace change and its associated discomfort.

Courage is crucial in all walks of life. A lack of courage can be paralyzing. Speaking up at a meeting, confronting gossip, embracing change, admitting a need for help are all examples of every day opportunities to exhibit courage.

Offering opinions and solutions that may be unpopular is a scary proposition. Yet, the courage leader leaves conformity and comfort behind to voice their opinions and judgments and they stand by that commitment even when challenged. I ask myself, what’s the worst that can happen? Usually, the worst doesn’t happen, so take the risk.

Organizations need new ideas. It takes courage to introduce those ideas. And it takes time and nurturing for those ideas to mature. To overcome challenge, we must think and act out of the box. People must do their homework and they must effectively present their ideas. Between the conception and the execution, there is courage. Leaders fail when they don’t act on their ideas. Be bold and faithful to yourself and your team.

The recent massive corporate failures of Wall Street and Detroit are only the latest in a recent series that includes Enron and WorldCom. These corporate failures represent corruption and unethical behavior on an unimaginable scale. They also represent a major failure of courage. To speak out against the madness may be the downfall of those who have succumbed and also those who report. The culture of restraint to “whistle blow” is a failure of nerve and courage because it is far safer to be wrong with the majority than to be right alone. You must have the courage to care, to care enough about your deeply held personal principles that you hold to these in the face of personal risks. Companies and their leaders must hold themselves to higher standards and not to short term profits. And when infractions occur, it takes courage to point out the weaknesses.

“The encouraging thing is that every time you meet a situation, though you may think at the time it is an impossibility and you go through the tortures of the damned, once you have met it and lived through it you find that forever after you are freer than you ever were before. If you can live through that you can live through anything. You gain strength, courage, and confidence by every experience in which you stop to look fear in the face. You are able to say to yourself, `I lived through this horror. I can take the next thing that comes along.’ The danger lies in refusing to face the fear, in not daring to come to grips with it. If you fail anywhere along the line, it will take away your confidence. You must make yourself succeed every time. You must do the thing you think you cannot do.” — Eleanor Roosevelt

Summary

A commitment to review and renew personal tenets of leadership is essential to sustaining a healthy perspective on personal and business life. Understanding underlying core values and ethics strengthens character and essence. One of my favorite stories about David and Goliath ties C4 leadership principles together. Because of his character, David was willing to standup and fight against evil. He faced a giant and was able to defeat him. He was principled and committed to accomplishing what he was called to do. David ran to the battle. He knew that action needed to be taken and he did the right thing in spite of discouraging insults and fearful threats. David took the skills that he learned as a youth and using his sling shot, brought the giant to the ground. He then displayed even greater courage as he completed his duty with the sword in spite of his small stature.

When facing leadership decisions, we all face giants. How to face them is the question. So, be prepared because America needs and demands your leadership. C4 is a great recipe for facing those leadership demands.

To do the right thing when no one is looking is character
To know how to do it is competency
To dedicate to doing something is commitment
To uphold your values in the face of risk is courage
To get others to do all these things is C4 leadership

United States Air Force 30 year Aircraft Investment Plan FY 11-40

March 6, 2010

The aviation plan provides the diverse mix of aircraft needed to carry out the six joint missions. The capabilities provided by aircraft identified in this plan translate into four principal investment objectives:
• Meet the demand for persistent, unmanned, multirole intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities. The number of platforms in this category—Global Hawk-class, Reaper, and Predator-class systems— will grow from approximately 300 in FY 2011 to more than 800 in FY 2020, including the Army’s Extended-Range/Multipurpose unmanned aerial system (UAS) and the Navy’s Broad-Area Maritime Surveillance UAS aircraft. This nearly 200 percent capacity increase will be effectively multiplied by capability improvements afforded by the acquisition of vastly improved sensors and the replacement of Air Force Predators with more capable Reapers. This plan calls for growth in Air Force unmanned Predator and Reaper platforms from a capacity of 50 orbits in FY 2011 to 65 by FY 2013. The Department will assess the need for more capacity in future plans.
• Provide sufficient enabler capability and capacity. Our airlift inventory is robust and stable. Both the Air Force and Navy are recapitalizing their intratheater lift inventories. The Air Force continues to modernize the strategic lift inventory, which is projected to remain viable through the years covered by this plan. The Air Force is beginning the recapitalization of the tanker fleet. The Air Force plans to develop and procure 109 new KC-X tankers by 2020. Simultaneously, it is sustaining its fleet of airborne early warning aircraft. The Air Force anticipates recapitalizing that fleet in the far term. The Navy is recapitalizing its fleet of airborne early warning aircraft with the E-2D aircraft carrying a new radar capable of operating in stressful anti-access environments. The Navy is also recapitalizing its aged fleet of maritime patrol aircraft with a modern commercial aircraft variant equipped with a sensor suite that provides persistent undersea and anti-surface warfare capabilities. Finally, the Navy will recapitalize its expeditionary electronic warfare capabilities, resulting in a total of 14 EA-18G squadrons.
• Acquire fifth-generation fighter/attack aircraft. The Department’s fifth-generation assets will grow from about 7 percent of the current force of manned fighter/attack aircraft to about 34 percent by FY 2020. The Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) will account for the bulk of DoD’s fifth-generation inventory. This aviation plan reflects the restructured JSF program and incorporates the Department’s latest estimates of schedule and cost performance. The Air Force continues to modernize its fleet of F-22 aircraft, and the Navy is completing production of the fourth-generation FA-18E/F aircraft. By FY 2040, almost all of today’s “legacy” force will have retired and the Department will have begun recapitalization of its fifth-generation force. These far-term recapitalization plans cannot be defined with any degree of precision today, making investment projections difficult beyond the well- understood procurement plans for the JSF. The Department is continuing to evaluate projected threats and the alternative means for defeating those threats. It is anticipated that a family of systems—mixes of manned and unmanned aircraft, with varying stealth characteristics, and advanced standoff weapons—will shape the future fighter/attack inventory. These tradeoffs are being examined now, and subsequent aviation plans will reflect the resulting acquisition decisions.
• Modernize long-range strike capabilities. The current fleet of Air Force bombers continues to be modernized, since much of today’s inventory will remain relevant through FY 2040. As with the fighter/attack force, the aviation plan foresees a family of systems providing the solution to the enduring need for timely long-range strike capabilities. A study is underway to identify the right mix of manned and unmanned technologies that will provide future long-range strike capabilities and to determine the right balance between range, payload, speed, stealth, and on- board sensors. A product of that study will be the identification of a replacement aircraft for the aging aircraft in the legacy bomber fleet and the timing and funding profile required to support this aircraft.
The FY 2011-2040 aviation plan is consistent with the tenets of the QDR and meets the national security requirements of the United States. The FYDP provides the funding needed to implement the aviation plan through FY 2015. For the years beyond the FYDP, the funding projections presented in the plan assume 3 percent real growth in annual investments, on average. While optimistic, funding increases of that size are consistent with the Secretary of Defense’s statements about the budgetary growth needed to ensure that U.S. forces remain capable of meeting national security requirements in the decades ahead. The aviation plan incorporates realistic projections of program costs within the FYDP period. The funding profiles for individual programs were derived from independent cost estimates, where possible, or from historical data.
This first aviation plan does not foresee major industrial-base issues. Although there are impacts to specific corporate interests in certain sectors, there are no immediate concerns about the robustness of the American aviation industrial base. The funding blueprint for aviation programs reflected in the plan suggests that the nation’s aviation industry will remain strong into the distant future.

National Cybersecurity Initiative

March 6, 2010

Cybersecurity is one of the most serious economic and national security challenges we face but we are not adequately prepared to counter. In May 2009, the Cyberspace Policy Review recommended a coordinator with regular access to the President; close coordination with all key players in U.S. cybersecurity, including state and local governments and the private sector; strengthen public/private partnerships to find technology solutions that ensure U.S. security and prosperity; invest in the cutting-edge research and development necessary for the innovation and discovery to meet the digital challenges of our time; and begin a campaign to promote cybersecurity awareness and digital literacy while ensuring privacy rights and civil liberties guaranteed in the Constitution.

The Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) informed the Cyberspace Policy Review as the administrations transitioned in 2009. The CNCI and its associated activities have become key elements of a broader, updated national U.S. cybersecurity strategy. The CNCI consists of a number of mutually reinforcing initiatives with the following major goals designed to help secure the United States in cyberspace:

– Shared situational awareness of network vulnerabilities, threats, and events within the Federal Government—and ultimately with state, local, and tribal governments and private sector partners—and the ability to act quickly to reduce our current vulnerabilities and prevent intrusions.
– Enhanced U.S. counterintelligence capabilities and increasing the security of the supply chain for key information technologies.
– Expanded cyber education; coordinating and redirecting research and development efforts across the Federal Government; and working to define and develop strategies to deter hostile or malicious activity in cyberspace.
– Improved key functions as criminal investigation; intelligence collection, processing, and analysis; and information assurance critical to enabling national cybersecurity efforts.

The CNCI was developed with attention to privacy and civil liberties concerns in close consultation with privacy experts across the government. Below is a summary of the CNCI initiatives released by the administration.

CNCI Initiative Details
Initiative #1. Manage the Federal Enterprise Network as a single network enterprise with Trusted Internet Connections. The Trusted Internet Connections (TIC) initiative, headed by the Office of Management and Budget and the Department of Homeland Security, covers the consolidation of the Federal Government’s external access points (including those to the Internet). This consolidation will result in a common security solution which includes: facilitating the reduction of external access points, establishing baseline security capabilities; and, validating agency adherence to those security capabilities. Agencies participate in the TIC initiative either as TIC Access Providers (a limited number of agencies that operate their own capabilities) or by contracting with commercial Managed Trusted IP Service (MTIPS) providers through the GSA-managed NETWORX contract vehicle.

Initiative #2. Deploy an intrusion detection system of sensors across the Federal enterprise. Intrusion Detection Systems using passive sensors form a vital part of U.S. Government network defenses by identifying when unauthorized users attempt to gain access to those networks. DHS is deploying, as part of its EINSTEIN 2 activities, signature-based sensors capable of inspecting Internet traffic entering Federal systems for unauthorized accesses and malicious content. The EINSTEIN 2 capability enables analysis of network flow information to identify potential malicious activity while conducting automatic full packet inspection of traffic entering or exiting U.S. Government networks for malicious activity using signature-based intrusion detection technology. Associated with this investment in technology is a parallel investment in manpower with the expertise required to accomplish DHS’s expanded network security mission. EINSTEIN 2 is capable of alerting US-CERT in real time to the presence of malicious or potentially harmful activity in federal network traffic and provides correlation and visualization of the derived data. Due to the capabilities within EINSTEIN 2, US-CERT analysts have a greatly improved understanding of the network environment and an increased ability to address the weaknesses and vulnerabilities in Federal network security. As a result, US-CERT has greater situational awareness and can more effectively develop and more readily share security relevant information with network defenders across the U.S. Government, as well as with security professionals in the private sector and the American public. The Department of Homeland Security’s Privacy Office has conducted and published a Privacy Impact Assessment for the EINSTEIN 2 program.

Initiative #3. Pursue deployment of intrusion prevention systems across the Federal enterprise. This Initiative represents the next evolution of protection for civilian Departments and Agencies of the Federal Executive Branch. This approach, called EINSTEIN 3, will draw on commercial technology and specialized government technology to conduct real-time full packet inspection and threat-based decision-making on network traffic entering or leaving these Executive Branch networks. The goal of EINSTEIN 3 is to identify and characterize malicious network traffic to enhance cybersecurity analysis, situational awareness and security response. It will have the ability to automatically detect and respond appropriately to cyber threats before harm is done, providing an intrusion prevention system supporting dynamic defense. EINSTEIN 3 will assist DHS US-CERT in defending, protecting and reducing vulnerabilities on Federal Executive Branch networks and systems. The EINSTEIN 3 system will also support enhanced information sharing by US-CERT with Federal Departments and Agencies by giving DHS the ability to automate alerting of detected network intrusion attempts and, when deemed necessary by DHS, to send alerts that do not contain the content of communications to the National Security Agency (NSA) so that DHS efforts may be supported by NSA exercising its lawfully authorized missions. This initiative makes substantial and long-term investments to increase national intelligence capabilities to discover critical information about foreign cyber threats and use this insight to inform EINSTEIN 3 systems in real time. DHS will be able to adapt threat signatures determined by NSA in the course of its foreign intelligence and DoD information assurance missions for use in the EINSTEIN 3 system in support of DHS’s federal system security mission. Information sharing on cyber intrusions will be conducted in accordance with the laws and oversight for activities related to homeland security, intelligence, and defense in order to protect the privacy and rights of U.S. citizens.

DHS is currently conducting a exercise to pilot the EINSTEIN 3 capabilities described in this initiative based on technology developed by NSA and to solidify processes for managing and protecting information gleaned from observed cyber intrusions against civilian Executive Branch systems. Government civil liberties and privacy officials are working closely with DHS and US-CERT to build appropriate and necessary privacy protections into the design and operational deployment of EINSTEIN 3.

Initiative #4: Coordinate and redirect research and development (R&D) efforts. No single individual or organization is aware of all of the cyber-related R&D activities being funded by the Government. This initiative is developing strategies and structures for coordinating all cyber R&D sponsored or conducted by the U.S. government, both classified and unclassified, and to redirect that R&D where needed. This Initiative is critical to eliminate redundancies in federally funded cybersecurity research, and to identify research gaps, prioritize R&D efforts, and ensure the taxpayers are getting full value for their money as we shape our strategic investments.

Initiative #5. Connect current cyber ops centers to enhance situational awareness. There is a pressing need to ensure that government information security offices and strategic operations centers share data regarding malicious activities against federal systems, consistent with privacy protections for personally identifiable and other protected information and as legally appropriate, in order to have a better understanding of the entire threat to government systems and to take maximum advantage of each organization’s unique capabilities to produce the best overall national cyber defense possible. This initiative provides the key means necessary to enable and support shared situational awareness and collaboration across six centers that are responsible for carrying out U.S. cyber activities. This effort focuses on key aspects necessary to enable practical mission bridging across the elements of U.S. cyber activities: foundational capabilities and investments such as upgraded infrastructure, increased bandwidth, and integrated operational capabilities; enhanced collaboration, including common technology, tools, and procedures; and enhanced shared situational awareness through shared analytic and collaborative technologies.

The National Cybersecurity Center (NCSC) within the Department of Homeland Security will play a key role in securing U.S. Government networks and systems under this initiative by coordinating and integrating information from the six centers to provide cross-domain situational awareness, analyzing and reporting on the state of U.S. networks and systems, and fostering interagency collaboration and coordination.

Initiative #6. Develop and implement a government-wide cyber counterintelligence (CI) plan. A government-wide cyber counterintelligence plan is necessary to coordinate activities across all Federal Agencies to detect, deter, and mitigate the foreign-sponsored cyber intelligence threat to U.S. and private sector information systems. To accomplish these goals, the plan establishes and expands cyber CI education and awareness programs and workforce development to integrate CI into all cyber operations and analysis, increase employee awareness of the cyber CI threat, and increase counterintelligence collaboration across the government. The Cyber CI Plan is aligned with the National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America (2007) and supports the other programmatic elements of the CNCI.

Initiative #7. Increase the security of our classified networks. Classified networks house the Federal Government’s most sensitive information and enable crucial war-fighting, diplomatic, counterterrorism, law enforcement, intelligence, and homeland security operations. Successful penetration or disruption of these networks could cause exceptionally grave damage to our national security. We need to exercise due diligence in ensuring the integrity of these networks and the data they contain.

Initiative #8. Expand cyber education. While billions of dollars are being spent on new technologies to secure the U.S. Government in cyberspace, it is the people with the right knowledge, skills, and abilities to implement those technologies who will determine success. However there are not enough cybersecurity experts within the Federal Government or private sector to implement the CNCI, nor is there an adequately established Federal cybersecurity career field. Existing cybersecurity training and personnel development programs, while good, are limited in focus and lack unity of effort. In order to effectively ensure our continued technical advantage and future cybersecurity, we must develop a technologically-skilled and cyber-savvy workforce and an effective pipeline of future employees. It will take a national strategy, similar to the effort to upgrade science and mathematics education in the 1950’s, to meet this challenge.

Initiative #9. Define and develop enduring “leap-ahead” technology, strategies, and programs. One goal of the CNCI is to develop technologies that provide increases in cybersecurity by orders of magnitude above current systems and which can be deployed within 5 to 10 years. This initiative seeks to develop strategies and programs to enhance the component of the government R&D portfolio that pursues high-risk/high-payoff solutions to critical cybersecurity problems. The Federal Government has begun to outline Grand Challenges for the research community to help solve these difficult problems that require ‘out of the box’ thinking. In dealing with the private sector, the government is identifying and communicating common needs that should drive mutual investment in key research areas.

Initiative #10. Define and develop enduring deterrence strategies and programs. Our Nation’s senior policymakers must think through the long-range strategic options available to the United States in a world that depends on assuring the use of cyberspace. To date, the U.S. Government has been implementing traditional approaches to the cybersecurity problem—and these measures have not achieved the level of security needed. This Initiative is aimed at building an approach to cyber defense strategy that deters interference and attack in cyberspace by improving warning capabilities, articulating roles for private sector and international partners, and developing appropriate responses for both state and non-state actors.

Initiative #11. Develop a multi-pronged approach for global supply chain risk management. Globalization of the commercial information and communications technology marketplace provides increased opportunities for those intent on harming the United States by penetrating the supply chain to gain unauthorized access to data, alter data, or interrupt communications. Risks stemming from both the domestic and globalized supply chain must be managed in a strategic and comprehensive way over the entire lifecycle of products, systems and services. Managing this risk will require a greater awareness of the threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences associated with acquisition decisions; the development and employment of tools and resources to technically and operationally mitigate risk across the lifecycle of products (from design through retirement); the development of new acquisition policies and practices that reflect the complex global marketplace; and partnership with industry to develop and adopt supply chain and risk management standards and best practices. This initiative will enhance Federal Government skills, policies, and processes to provide departments and agencies with a robust toolset to better manage and mitigate supply chain risk at levels commensurate with the criticality of, and risks to, their systems and networks.

Initiative #12. Define the Federal role for extending cybersecurity into critical infrastructure domains. The U.S. Government depends on a variety of privately owned and operated critical infrastructures to carry out the public’s business. In turn, these critical infrastructures rely on the efficient operation of information systems and networks that are vulnerable to malicious cyber threats. This Initiative builds on the existing and ongoing partnership between the Federal Government and the public and private sector owners and operators of Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR). The Department of Homeland Security and its private-sector partners have developed a plan of shared action with an aggressive series of milestones and activities. It includes both short-term and long-term recommendations, specifically incorporating and leveraging previous accomplishments and activities that are already underway. It addresses security and information assurance efforts across the cyber infrastructure to increase resiliency and operational capabilities throughout the CIKR sectors. It includes a focus on public-private sharing of information regarding cyber threats and incidents in both government and CIKR.

United States Air Force Posture Statement

March 6, 2010

I’ve attached the United States Air Force Posture Statement, 2010. Secretary Donley and General Schwartz testified before Congress defining the way ahead for the USAF and the FY11 budget.
The 2010 Air Force Posture Statement presents the Air Force vision of Global Vigilance, Reach and Power as a vital component of the Joint team, defending National interests, and guided by Air Force core values of Integrity First, Service Before Self, and Excellence in All We Do.
In the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review, the Secretary of Defense established four U.S. defense objectives to guide current actions as well as to plan for the future: prevail in today’s wars, prevent and deter conflict, prepare to defeat adversaries and succeed in a wide range of contingencies, and preserve and enhance the all-volunteer force. In accordance with this guidance, the Air Force developed the 2011 budget request to enhance capabilities to meet these objectives, while balancing risk appropriately. As the future security environment will require a range of agile and flexible capabilities, investments for today’s conflict will also support efforts to prepare, prevent, and prevail, and preserve well into the future.
Prevail in Today’s Wars: Investments in intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, as well as airlift, command and control, and building partner capacity reinforce the prominence of this priority in this budget request. In addition, nearly 30,000 deployed Airmen daily provide key capabilities in direct support of combat operations.
Prevent and Deter Conflict: The Air Force made significant resource and cultural investments in reinvigorating the Air Force’s portion of the Nation’s nuclear deterrence over the past 18 months. The Air Force is now institutionalizing these successes to ensure the highest standards across the nuclear enterprise. Initial investments in a family of long-range strike capabilities mark the commitment to sustaining power projection capabilities for the next several decades.
Prepare to Defeat Adversaries and Succeed in a Wide Range of Contingencies: This priority directly reflects the Air Force emphasis on balancing commitments to today’s conflicts against preparing for mid- and long-term risks. Awarding a contract this year to recapitalize the aging tanker force is the top acquisition priority. Similarly, the F-35 will be the workhorse of the fighter force for decades to come. Investment in this program is timed with other modernization initiatives and divestment plans to ensure sufficient capabilities are available to deter and defeat potential enemies.
Preserve and Enhance the All-Volunteer Force: Preserving and enhancing the all-volunteer force provides the foundation required for a flexible and agile posture. This budget reflects a commitment to enhancing the force through education and training, while also bolstering the overall quality of life of Airmen and their families.
The Air Force’s proposed FY11 budget of $119.6B achieves the right balance between providing capabilities for today’s commitments and posturing for future challenges. Balancing requirements for today and tomorrow determined this recapitalization strategy. The Air Force chose to improve its existing capabilities whenever possible, and to pursue new systems when required. This recapitalization approach attempts to keep pace with threat developments and required capabilities, while ensuring stewardship of national resources. In developing this budget request, the Air Force also carefully preserved and enhanced the comprehensive approach to taking care of Airmen and Air Force families.

AIR FORCE CORE FUNCTIONS
Nuclear Deterrence Operations, Air Superiority, Space Superiority, Cyberspace Superiority, Global Precision Attack, Rapid Global Mobility, Special Operations, Global Integrated ISR, Command and Control, Personnel Recovery, Building Partnerships, Agile Combat Support

Remotely Piloted Aircraft

March 5, 2010

The battlespace is crowded with aircraft. And it is getting busier. Every nation sees the advantage of remotely piloting a vehicle over contested territory and using the on board capabilities to accomplish the mission without putting a pilot in harms way. In some ways, it almost seems surgical and without fingerprints. Its almost as if the nation of interest doesn’t have any recourse and the issues of sovereignty and overflight can be dismissed with a simple denial. Is this the wave of the future?

I remember in 1991, when I was working in the Joint Staff, we were standing up a counternarcotics division. Several contractors approached me to explain the opportunities they had with a remotely piloted vehicle and suggested it could be a great tool to patrol the border. We were looking at dirigibles with F-16 radars at the time because of the dwell time but saw the advantage of the predator-like UAVs. Of course, as we investigated further, legal issues prevented the use of military equipment within the borders of the US. This was 10 years before the establishment of Homeland Security but, there was a need and desire for more responsive intelligence capabilities then and there is even more of a need and demand for them today.

The question is, who’s in charge? The US is investing billions of dollars in drones…they are the key to future intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. And, so are many other countries. With proliferation comes challenges. Sovereignty, airspace control and deconfliction, countering UAVs, exploitation of downlinks, rules of engagement, acquisition programs and dissemination of information to mention a few. Is there a single integrator? Should there be an integrator; a spokesperson for this explosion in capability?

At least 44 other nations are developing their own killer unmanned aerial vehicle squadrons in addition to the US’s large fleet of highly capable aircraft. Cool names like Sky Warrior and Vulture and Predator and Phantom Ray and Demon and Reaper and Hunter and Global Hawk and the Vulture, all will take to the sky and compete for airspace and satellite time.

After many years waging an economy of scale war in Afghanistan, DOD determined that increasing ISR assets was the first step in gaining knowledge of the enemy and a necessary step to take to win the war. With unacknowledged use in Pakistan and increased patrols in Afghanistan, the strategy is paying off in the kill and capture of many Taleban and Al Qaeda leaders.

Lessons learned from Iraq, the purchase of Beechcraft King Air 350ER manned aircraft and an dramatic increase in orbits from zero to 40 currently and up to 65 by 2015 will give the ISAF commander, and his subordinate commands, unprecedented eyes and ears in the battlespace. Boosting last year’s $3.5 billion budget by 50% for ISR clearly makes UAVs the battlefield and budget winner for the next couple years.

The future looks equally bright in terms of development. UAV technology will morph allowing embedding other capabilities including electronic warfare tools like radar jamming, autonomous aerial refueling, air-missile defense and surveillance. The flight envelopes will expand and opportunities to fly as high as 7.5 miles straight up and cruise at 600 mph will bring new dynamics to the UAV world. The possibilities are limitless when a UAV can potentially replace a satellite, staying aloft for as many as 5 years and persistently scan an area of 600 miles with a suite of day and night cameras.

The technology in drones has evolved quickly and the engineering accomplishments are astounding. Unit level UAVs that fly below a couple thousand feet to the highly accomplished technical marvels that fly a few miles above the earth’s surface all provide the combatant commander with capabilities only dreamed of just a few short years ago. But with this comes a much needed roles and missions discussion. Foreign governments are increasingly relying on the technology since unmanned drones represent less of a threat to airspace sovereignty than piloted aircraft. Budget crowd out, logistical and sustainment issues, rules of engagement and applications of international law will eventually find an entrée into this technological marvel.

Air Force FY 2011 Budget Request

March 4, 2010

The link leads you to a summary of the Air Force budget request for those interested in where the Air Force is headed. These comments are taken from that document.
The Air Force FY 2011 Budget Request supports the DoD Budget Themes of Taking Care of People, Rebalancing the Force, Reforming how the Department Buys Equipment and Services and Supports the Joint Team. This budget request also supports the QDR Goals: Prevail in Today‘s Wars; Prevent and Deter Conflict; Prepare to Defeat Adversaries and Succeed in a Wide Range of Contingencies; and Preserves and Enhances the All-Volunteer Force. The priorities laid out and funded in this budget request provide a strong foundation to ensure generations of Airmen to come can fly, fight and win in air, space and cyberspace. Meeting the strategic charge of leadership is addressed by matching resources to capabilities in the FY 2011 Budget Request.
Each dollar in the Air Force is considered a part of Air Force Total Obligation Authority (TOA)–the amount of money the Air Force has the authority to obligate throughout the life of the appropriation. Air Force TOA is viewed in two ―buckets―Blue TOA and Non-Blue TOA–allowing Air Force leadership to distinguish between those resources under direct Air Force management and those managed by other organizations. In accordance with guidance from Congress and administration policy, the Air Force budget includes a separate but simultaneously submitted request for Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) funding.
The Budget Overview is organized in four sections:
1. Section 1 is a summary of the Air Force baseline budget by appropriation as it is presented to Congress. This section breaks the Air Force FY 2011 Budget Request out into Blue and Non-Blue TOA, and highlights Blue discretionary initiatives. This section does not include OCO.
2. Section 2 summarizes the OCO Budget Request for FY2011 and is organized by major appropriation. Descriptions of the FY 2011 Budget Request reflect requirements to support the needs of Joint Force Commanders with a view of Core Functions impacted by appropriations. OCO includes Blue and Non-Blue TOA.
3. Section 3 is a summary of the Air Force Performance Based Budget organized into the Air Force‘s top five priorities listed in the current strategic plan with a discussion of Core Functions. The Performance Based Budget discusses Air Force performance goals in specific mission areas and progress achieved towards these goals. The totals in this section match with the budget materials provided to Congress for FY 2011. This section includes all TOA.
4. Section 4 highlights the Air Force Working Capital Fund and describes the initiatives within each business activity. The Working Capital Fund includes both planned revenue and expenses required to support Consolidated Sustainment Activity Group, Supply Management Activity Group and Transportation Working Capital Fund activities that meet the logistics demands of the warfighter on a daily basis.The Air Force‘s FY 2011 Budget Request supports a balanced approach to prevail in today‘s operations while investing in new capabilities, force structure, skills and technologies to meet tomorrow‘s challenges. This budget positions the Air Force to execute the priorities laid out in the National Defense Strategy and the QDR to deliver capabilities at the time and place required by Joint Force Commanders. Additionally, the Air Force strengthens the capacity of its partners through outreach across the diverse set of geopolitical and resourcing decisions. This section discusses the Air Force budget highlights by appropriation.
The Air Force mission and priorities come together to support the Joint mission by providing Global Vigilance, Reach and Power across the globe. Those are:
Air Force Mission
o Fly, fight and win…in air, space and cyberspace Leadership Priorities
o Continue to Strengthen the Nuclear Enterprise
o Partner with the Joint and Coalition Team to Win Today‘s Fight o Develop and Care for Airmen and Their Families
o Modernize Our Air and Space Inventories, Organizations and Training
o Recapture Acquisition Excellence
The FY 2011 Budget Request reflects commitment to support the Joint fight and represents a transition from a ―combat forces to a Joint Force enabler investment focus. As stewards of national resources, the Air Force will also continue to examine investments to emphasize diverse capabilities needed to meet an increasingly complex and uncertain environment in support of the Joint Team.